Motivation is an inspiration that helps to use the employees’ knowledge and skill for the growth and development of the organization. It is an act of persuading the people who work in the organization. It is defines as the psychological process that hell to increase the will to do work. It is the process of inspiring people from which the people can use their ability. It is an important function of management. The employees who are engaged in the organization must be motivated. Without motivation, their ability and skill can’t be used properly. Every employee has the capacity to do work. It is the process that helps the employee to explore their talent.
“The concept of motivation is mainly psychological. It relates to those factors or forces operating with the individual employee or subordinate which impel him to act or not to act in certain ways.” –Delton e. McFarland
Importance of motivation
- Proper utilization of production factor: Motivation is the mechanism which is used to stimulate the employees. Stimulated employees are ready to use the production factor properly and efficiently. So it results in increase in production and productivity.
- Willingness and interest creation: Motivation stimulates the employees in an organization. It influences the willingness of employees to work hard and help to present better performance. It is a process that acts according to desire of employees and increases the willingness and interest of employees to do work.
- High productivity: When the employees are fully motivated there is better performance. It results high production and productivity increment.
- Organizational goals: The machine, equipment, money cannot be effectively used when the employees are not motivated to do the work in an organization to the maximum extent.so it helps to achieve the organizational goals.
- Readiness for change: Changes are required in every organization. Such changes may be in technology, environment etc. when the changes are introduced in the organization there is tendency to resist them by the employee or hesitate to accept the change. Motivated employees are already made ready to accept the change.
- Efficiency in work: Motivated employees perform their duties according to the goals of the organization. They perform work efficiently and timely and increase the efficiency.
- Reduce absenteeism: Motivated employees don’t want to be absent frequently. In other words, Motivated employees stay in the organization more and non Motivated employees are careless for the organizational goals.
- Employees’ satisfaction: Employee’s satisfaction is an important aspect for the managerial point of view. Employees may be motivated by fulfilling their needs and giving satisfaction in their work. In short Motivated employees are always satisfied.
- Fewer disputes and strikes: Disputes and strikes are harmful for organizational activities. When the employees are not motivates they are dissatisfies which creates disputes in the organization.
- Better human relation: All employees must be treated as human beings by the organization. Motivation I mainly related to behave the human beings.
Process of motivation
- Unsatisfied needs and motives: It is the first process of motivation. This stage involves unsatisfied needs and motives. Such unsatisfied needs can be activated by internal stimulus such as hunger and thirst. They can also be activated by external stimulus such as advertisement and window display.
- Tension: This stage involves tension. Unsatisfied needs create tension in the individual. Such tension can be physical, psychological, and sociological. In this situation, people try to develop objects that will satisfy their needs.
- Action to satisfy needs and motives: This stage involves action of people to satisfy needs and motives. Such tension creates strong internal stimulus that calls for action. Individual engages in action to satisfy needs and motives for tension reduction. For this purpose, alternatives are searches and choice is made, the action can be hard work for earning more money.
- Goal accomplishment: This stage involves goal accomplishment. Action to satisfy needs and motives accomplishes goals. It can be achieved through reward and punishment. When actions are carried out as per the tensions, then people are rewarded others are punished. Ultimately goals are accomplished.
- Feedback: This is the last stage for motivation. Feedback provides information for revision or improvement or modification of needs as needed. Depending on how well the goal is accomplished their needs and motives are modified. Drastic changes in environment necessitate the revision and modification of needs.
Techniques of motivation
- Financial incentives: First techniques of motivation are financial incentives as money is indicator of success. Therefore, it fulfills psychological safety and status need as people satisfy their needs by money. Wages, salary motivates employees to perform better.
- Job enlargement: Under this technique, task assigned to do job are increased by adding simile task. So the scope of job enlargement is high for the motivation of -subordinates. It is also known as horizontally leading of job.
- Job enrichment: Under this technique jobs are made challenging and meaningful by increasing responsibility and growth opportunities. In such technique of motivation, planning and control responsibility are added to the job usually with less supervision and more self evaluation. It is also called vertical leading.
- Job rotation: It refers to shifting an employee from one job to another. Such job rotation doesn’t mean hanging of their job but only the employees are rotated. By this it helps to develop the competency in several jobs which helps in development of employees.
- Participation: Participation refers to involvement of employee in planning and decision-making .it helps the employees feel that they are an asset of the organization which helps in developing ideas to solve the problems.
- Delegation of authority: Delegation of authority is concerned with the granting of authority to the subordinates which helps in developing a feeling of dedication to work in an organization because it provides the employees high morale to perform any task.
- Quality of work life: It is the relationship between employees’ and the total working environment of organization. It integrates employee needs and well-being with improves productivity, higher job satisfaction and great employee involvement. It ensures higher level of satisfaction.
- Management by Objectives: It is used as a motivation and technique for self-control of performance. By this technique supervisor and subordinates set individual and organizational goals. Each individual’s responsibilities are clearly defined which would help identify the skill sets one has to make the best use of the same to meet organizational mission and vision. This also helps the organization function effectively.
- Behavior modification: The last technique of motivation is behavior modification. It develops positive motivation to the workers to do the work in desired behavior in order to modify behavior.
Types of motivation
- Positive motivation: It is also known as cost approach. It offers some reward for better performance. Such reward can be of two types i.e. money reward like giving salaries and wages, payment for higher performance like bonus and pension, payment for holidays and so on. Secondly there maybe job related reward. In such reward, it focuses on job rather than money like job enrichment, making participation ion management and decision-making, promoting employees and appraisal.
- Negative motivation: It is known as stick approach. It is the process of motivation through punishment for poor performance. Under this technique employees are motivated through providing monetary ways like reduction of pay, providing no bonus, taking fine for poor performance and non-monetary ways may be demotion, threat, transfer to emote areas, minimization of responsibility, loss of job etc.
Maslow’s need hierarchy theory
All human behavior is directed towards fulfilling their needs. Abhram Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory is based upon the needs of human beings. According to this theory, each and every people have certain needs. In response to that need, s/he is motivated to do work. Human needs have hierarchy. That’s why to motivate any people to work. The need of that person should be fulfilled according to hierarchy because as one need of that person is satisfied, another need will be created respectively. The needs have been classified in a hierarchy as follows:
- Physiological needs: These needs are fundamental or basic need of human being such as food, water, clothes, shelter etc. Without these needs human being cannot survive. Therefore, these needs are necessary to operate the human life. In organization, the manager can provide the adequate lighting, comfortable temperatures and ventilation etc. to motivate the employees at first. These are the lowest order needs and assume top priority.
- Safety/ security needs: An individual wants to be free from the fear of losing job, food, shelter etc. which is known as safety or security needs. It is second important need because after fulfilling physiological need people want the safety and security needs. These needs may be job security, old age provision, pension plans, insurance, security from risk etc.
- Social needs: It is the third hierarchy of needs which comes after fulfilling safety or security needs. Man is social in nature. Therefore, human beings always want to live in society or group which loves him/her the most. These needs include love, affection, friendship, social acceptance etc. So a manager can initiate participation of the employees as part of association to motivate the people.
- Esteem/ego needs: After fulfilling the social needs of people, they now want esteem needs by which they can have some special and unique place or status for him/her. They want to be prestigious and respected which is known as esteem or ego need. It is the second last need of Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. This need includes self-confident, self-respect, prestige, power, status, job title etc. So s/he wants to be strong and want to have immense power from which s/he can get self-satisfaction. A manager can provide the attractive job position to employees to fulfill esteem or ego needs.
- Self-actualization needs: Maslow said that self actualization is the last and highest need in his hierarchy. After all needs are fulfilled especially including esteem/ego needs they now want or desire to help others. It is maximization of one’s potential. In this need people want to be satisfied in their desire. It includes challenging jobs, creativity, risk bearing capacity etc.
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