Management in various sectors

Management as a science

Management as a science, it has systematized body of knowledge, concept and principles. Management deals different problems and issues by using quantitative models and decision-making techniques and issues by using quantitative models and decision-making techniques to arrive at right decisions. As a science management contains concepts, hypothesis, theories, experimentation all verified and tested accordingly to clarify about cause and effect relationship between many facts or events occurred.

  • Management is systematic body of knowledge with theories, concepts, principles, experiments and functions which are systematically and logically analyzed
  • The theories related to management are applicable and used in all types of organization irrespective of size, type, capital and so on. However, the usage and method may vary according to the situation of organization and time.
  • All the managerial knowledge and practices are developed through various observations and experiments which are researched and experiment based
  • Tests of management theories are applied in situational and judgmental cases which help in prediction of future events.
  • Management is not a pure science but a social science

  • Management relates itself to cause and effect relationship. Results of modern management are acceptable to all employees. Good and efficient management system enhances the purity in organization.

Management as an art

Management includes the activities of planning, organizing, direction, decision-making, regulating and integration of all resources which requires special skill and art. According to Mary Parker,” management is an art of getting things done through others. Management enables a manager to get thongs done through employees.”


  • Management performs non programmed and non-routine work using creativity and innovations
  • Management accomplishes any job within time and budget to achieve organizational goals with ease.
  • Managers apply their interest, ability and skills for solving contemporary issues through decisions which ignite their creativity. They can use their skills in field of job performance, solving exceptional issues, forming objectives etc.
  • Managers must posses practical knowledge not only theoretical acquired from experiences which helps in working according to situation
  • Managerial activities are practices by using knowledge, ability and skill to solve the problems.

Management as a profession

In general sense, profession means occupation. Occupation is rendering service. Similarly, management is a distinct profession backed up by specialization. As a professional activity all management efficient people should have academic qualification and personal qualification from anybody. Here profession is not only an occupation of specialized skill but these skills should be applicable in large scale and interest of society as a whole.
  • Management is a separate discipline which includes research, observations and practice
  • Management requires formal education and training with updates of professionalism.
  • Professional managers must be joined in an association that follow rules and regulation according to the objectives set.
  • A professional association requires code of conduct to maintain self-discipline ethical behavior. Violation of code must be punishable
  • Organizations should be responsible towards society. An organization gets its birth in a society, lives and grows in a society and finally liquidates or dissolves in a society. Thu, an organization has responsibility towards members of society such as consumer, investors, employees and shareholders.



Management and Administration

There are various sayings regarding management and administration.

  • Management and administration are synonymous.
  • Management is wider term than administration.
  • Management and administration are different functions.
Management and administration are synonymous: According to this concept, there is no distinction between management and administration they are twin word rather. The authorities like Henry Fayol, Kuntz, O’Donnell, Allen, terry, Newman opines that Management is specialized activity used in social institutions whereas administration is used in government sectors.
Management is wider term than administration: Management experts of U.K claim that management is wider that administration and it includes higher meaning than that of administration. Barry Richman and Melvyn Copen opine that management includes administration and administration is just an implementing agency.
Management = administration +entrepreneurship
Management and administration are different functions: Under this concept much focus is given to administration. Administration is higher level activity and is concerned with formulation of broad objectives, mission, purpose and goals of organization. On the other hand, management is meant to execute and regulate the business activities to accomplish the organizational policies. Oliver Sheldon, W.R Spiegel, Ordway Teed opine that administration is determinative function relating to determining major mission considering the public opinion, government policies, social and external factors.


Differentiate administration and management

FactorsAdministrationManagement
NatureIt is thinking or determining function.It is doing or executive function.
Types of workIt relates with formulation of plans and objectives.It is operative level.
Level of authorityIt is top-level activity.It is operative level activity.
Decision makingIt considers public, opinion, government policies, social and external factors for taking decisions.It considers decisions influenced by values, opinions and beliefs.
Status of performerIt consists of investors.It consists of paid employees.
UseIt is used in government sectors.It is used in private sectors.
Main functionsPlanning and organizing.Directing and controlling.
AbilityRequires administrative quality.Requires technical and professional ability.


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