Management: Functions and Levels

Functions of Management

  1.  Planning: Planning means the determination what is to be done, how and where is to be done, who is to do it and how the results are to be evaluated.
    Planning consists of :-
    • Establishing objectives
    • Formulating rules and regulations
    • Developing programs
    • Scheduling
    • Budgeting
  2. Organizing: It means identification and grouping the activities to be performed and dividing them among the individuals and creating authority and responsibility relationships among them for the accomplishment of organizational objectives. It consists of :-
    • Determination of objectives and identification of activities necessary to achieve the objectives.
    • Delegation of authority and relationship among individuals.
    • Coordination of activities and assignment of duties.
    • Division of activities into different units or departments

  3. Staffing: Human resources management is a process consisting of the acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance of human resources. It consists of :
    • Manpower planning to determine the quality and quantity of employees required  for the jobs to b done.
    • Recruitment for attracting qualified persons.
    • Selection of best candidate.
    • Placement of the right man for the right job.
    • Training and development to increase new skills, knowledge and competency to do job.
    • Motivation of employees.
    • Evaluation performance of employees.
    • Employees welfare.
  4. Directing: Direction embraces those activities which are related to guiding and supervising subordinates .it consists of :-
    • Supervising the subordinates.
    • Communicating the information.
    • Providing effective leadership.
    • Motivating employees.
  5. Controlling: Controlling is the process of monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations. It consists of :-
    • Determination of standard performance.
    • Measurement of actual performance.
    • Compares the actual performance with the standard.
    • Analyzes deviations.
    • Take corrective actions if necessary.

    Levels of Management

    1. Top level management: It includes board of directors, chief executive or general managers , senior strategist, decision-making, directors. Corporate level goals, missions and objectives are determined. The major functions of this level are:
      • To formulate and determine the objectives and define the goals of the business.
      • To establish policies and prepare plans to attain the goals.
      • To set up an organizational structure to conduct the operations as per the plans.
      • To provide the overall direction in the organization.
      • To assemble the resources necessary for the attainment of the policy and execution of the plan.
      • To control effectively the business operations.
      • To judge and evaluate the results.
    2. Middle level management: It includes departmental managers, divisional heads and section officers. It acts as a bridge between top-level management and lower level management. the major functions of this level are:
      • To implement the task set up by top management.
      • To implement the policies framed by the top management.
      • To run the organizations effectively and efficiently.
      • To cooperate for the smooth functioning of the organizations.
      • To coordinate between different departments.
      • To recruit , select and train the employees for the better functioning of the departments.
      • To issue the instructions to the lower level management.
      • To motivate the workers and staffs for higher productivity and to reward them.
      • To lead the departments and build up an organizational spirit.
      • To report and make suitable recommendations to the top-level management for the better execution of the plans and policies.
    3. Lower level management: It includes supervisors, foremen and workers. it is also known as supervisory level of management in which the supervisors or foreman like sales officers, account officers etc. take responsibilities of the implementation and control of the operational plans developed by the middle level managers. The function of this level are:
      • To issue the orders and instruction to the workers to supervise and control the performance.
      • To plan the activities of the sections.
      • To direct and guide the workers about the work procedures.
      • To provide job training to the workers.
      • To arrange the necessary tools, equipment, materials for the workers and look after their proper maintenance.
      • To solve the problem of workers
      • To develop sense of cooperation and high group spirit among the workers.
      • To advise the middle level about the work environment.
      • To inform the unsolved problems of the workers to the middle level management.

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