Leadership

Leadership is defined as personal quality of an individual that influence the behavior of followers. It is an important function of management. Leadership is an act of influencing people so that the followers follow the path of leader. The successful leader must lead to stimulate and inspire the followers to achieve organizational goals. In an organization the manager is a leader and other subordinates are followers. A manager cannot manage effectively unless he can lead his subordinates effectively. Hence, a leader may or may not be a manager but a successful manager must be a leader.

Leadership is defined as influence, that is, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group work.

Qualities of leadership

  1. Personal qualities
    1. Self-confidence: A good leader must have self-confidence, must have sufficient enthusiasm and must be cheerful enough to enjoy the trust of his subordinates.
    2. Dynamic personality: A leader should be dynamic, cheerful and charming, must have sound health, cool temperament, conversational ability and decent behavior with tremendous stamina and vigor for hard work.
    3. Intellectual capacity: A leader should have the ability to think logically, analyze accurately and interpret the problems clearly.
    4. Take lead and initiative: A leader should have the ability to take lead and initiative in times of risk, uncertainties and complexities for prompt decision.
    5. Emotional stability: A leader should have balanced temperament to overcome moodiness, disappointment and inconsistency.
    6. Flexibility:  A leader should be flexible enough to accommodate other’s viewpoint and alter his decisions. Rigidity is only required in autocracy, change in decisions must be made with change in macro and micro environment.
    7. Responsibility feeling: A leader must feel or should bear responsibilities of all his decisions himself.
    8. Communication skill: The leader must be able to communicate with subordinates. The leader must communicate the information from his level to the down level. Communication must be two way. Sop that both leader and subordinates will exchange Ideas freely.
    9. Far sightedness: A leader should develop organizational planning and policies. When the leader is not far-sighted all efforts may be worthless.
  2. Managerial qualities
    1. Technical knowledge: A leader must have technical knowledge to provide the guidelines about the work of the subordinates which helps the leader to take right decisions at right time.
    2. Organizing abilities: All the resources, employees, people, business environment, methods, capital, manpower should be arranged properly by a leader to achieve organizational goals in a proper way.
    3. Power of judgment: A leader should have the power of judgment which comes from self-confidence and self-control. Even if there are several followers and several decisions the leader must judge and decide the case.
    4. Enthusiasm: – The leader must be devoted towards the organization. A devoted leader can conduct the activities successfully.
    5. Ability to guide and teach: It is the task of leader to get the best from others. A leader must know how to guide and teach the followers to make them convinced.
    6. Human relations: Leadership is related to inspire and encourage the people when there is good relation between leader and follower. The followers are easily influenced. So, a leader must be able to win the confidence and loyalty of people.


Function of managerial leader
  • Leader is true representative of the organization who represents the organization to those working for it as well as to the outside world. A leader functions as a chain between management and staff. S/he represents management before the workers and work before the management.
  • A leader must establish organizational goals. It is the primary function of the leader. S/he also should participate with superior to get it done.
  • When the skill and knowledge of the subordinates are not used properly a managerial leader must provide the guideline and effective path as motivational factor to them.
  • A leader must act like a captain to the team, must win the confidence of most of the colleagues and encourage team work.
  • The leader must design proper system of communication and communicate authority and responsibility to its subordinates so that they can know about their work.
  • A managerial leader must understand problems and feelings of the subordinates  and try to solve them tactfully.
  • A leader must maintain good relationship with subordinates and other people.
  • A good managerial leader must facilitate change in the organization whenever and wherever necessary.
  • A leader has the responsibility to control, supervise and see different departments to achieve organizational goals.
  • A leader should be able to evaluate the performance of subordinates. There must be provision of both reward and punishment.


Leadership style
  1. Autocratic leadership style: When the authority and decision-making power are concentrated on the leader is known as autocratic leadership style. There is no participation by subordinates. The leader takes full authority and assumes full responsibility. Planning, policies and other working procedures are predetermined by the leader alone. They convey the information about what to do and how to do. He never takes any advice and suggestions of other people. They structure the entire work situation in their own way and expect the workers to follow their orders and tolerate no deviation from their order. They are just like tyrant rulers. The leader who believes and exercised the autocratic leadership style is known as autocratic leader.

    • Features:
      • He/she makes his own decisions and he/she doesn’t take any advice of others because he/she thinks he/she is only superior.
      • His/her position gives him/her personal authority and right to lead the members in any way he/she desires.
      • Reward and punishment is exercised by him/her very strictly. Autocratic leadership style believes on negative motivational tools.
      • An autocrat leader does not give full information to the members. There is only one way communication in order to maintain the position.
      • An autocratic leader describes each job in detail and imposes rigid work standard on his employees. It means the subordinates are compelled to certain work assigned for him.
    • Advantages:
      • When the workers are undisciplined and uneducated it gives the best results.
      • When the laborers are not organized, it is more effective.
      • There is no need of trained labor. It may be used for untrained workers.
      • It is a prompt process of decision-making as the single person decides for the whole group.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Subordinates are not involved in the process of decision-making in autocratic leadership style.
      • It doesn’t emphasize on correct evaluation of employee’s performance.
      • The moral of employees is so low.
      • There is no chance of management development.
      • There is no chance of two-way communication.
      • Creative ideas and thinking cannot be used in autocratic leadership style.
      • The employees perform the work with negative motivation.
  2. Democratic leadership style: When the authority and decision-making power are decentralized to the subordinates is known as democratic leadership style. There is participation by subordinates. The leader delegates authority and provides responsibility even to the followers. Planning, policies and other working procedures are determined by the leader along with suggestions of the followers. He conveys the information about what to do and how to do just as a consultant. He takes advice and suggestions of other people. They structure the entire work situation in democratic way. They are just like democratic rulers. The leader who believes and exercised the democratic leadership style is known as democratic leader.

    • Features:
      • A democratic leader delegates the responsibility as per the capability of the employee.
      • There is participation of all subordinates in decision-making.
      • Human values are also given preference. The leader gives concerns for the followers.
      • Democratic leader imposes flexible work standard, designs goals with freedom for the performance of work.
      • A democratic leader emphasizes in results than on action.
    • Advantages: 
      • Good cooperation among employees is made in democratic leadership style.
      • Employees are highly satisfied and their morale is increased.
      • Human efforts are highly recognized.
      • It helps in increasing in productivity.
      • Policies, planning and other working procedures become better because different kinds of logic ideas and creativity are mixed.
      • Subordinates have grown considerable freedom of action that helps to increase the personal growth and gets opportunity to utilize their capabilities.
    • Disadvantages: 
      • It takes long time in decision-making.
      • It is not suitable for untrained subordinates.
      • A leader may  to be responsible in his style.
      • It is not suitable when the followers are undisciplined and untrained.
  3. Free rein leadership style: When all the authority and responsibility are delegated to the subordinates is known as Free rein leadership style. The leader who believes on this style is known as free rein leader. The free rein leader doesn’t use the power and leaves the power to the subordinates. He/she doesn’t provide any contribution to make planning and policies. This type of leadership style is very useful when group members are intelligent and fully aware of their roles and responsibilities.

    • Features:
      • Subordinates have complete freedom in decision-making.
      • The subordinates are self-directed, self-motivated and self-controlled.
      • The role of free rein leader is to provide facilities, materials and information to the employees.
      • The leader doesn’t interfere in making planning and policies.
    • Advantages: 
      • The employees are satisfied in their job because they are free in decision-making.
      • The morale of employees is developed.
      • The employees are highly developed because there is maximum possibility for the development of workers.
      • The creativity and potentiality of subordinate are fully utilized.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Leader contribution is ignored.
      • Sometime the subordinates are not self-directed.
      • Subordinates should not get the guidelines of the leader.

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