External Anatomy - Frog Dissection Manual
- Place the frog on the dissecting pan. Do not pin it down.
- Use these descriptions and the picture to identify each of the following external structures.
- Head – the anterior end of the frog extending to and including the eardrums
- mouth – the large opening at the anterior end of the head made up of a maxilla and mandible maxilla – the upper jaw bone
- mandible – the lower jaw bone
- external nares (i.e. nostrils) – two small openings on the dorsal surface of the head near the tip eyes – two eyes protrude from the head just posterior to the external nares
- nictitating membrane – an extension of the lower eyelid that can come up to protect the eye tympanum (i.e. eardrum) – round membranes just posterior and ventral to the eyes
- Trunk – the posterior end of the frog extending from the head to the hindlimbs
- cloacal opening – the hole at the posterior end of the frog (it’s the anus but has more functions)
- Appendages – the limbs that extend from the trunk including the forelimbs and hindlimbs forelimbs – short extensions from the anterior end of the trunk
- arm – the uppermost section of the forelimb extending from the shoulder to the elbow forearm – the middle section of the forelimb extending from the elbow to the wrist hand – the lowermost section of the forelimb extending outward from the wrist
- hindlimbs – long extensions from the posterior end of the trunk
- thigh – the uppermost section of the hindlimb extending from the hips to the knee shank – the middle section of the hindlimb extending from the knee to the ankle foot – the lowermost section of the hindlimb extending outward from the ankle
- digits – the fingers and toes; note: there are four finger digits but five toe digits
- Skin – the outer covering of the head, truck, and appendages; it is smooth and moist epidermis – the outer layer of the skin containing
- pigment granules for coloration dermis – the skin layer under the epidermis containing chromatophores (i.e. pigment cells)
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