Communication

Communication is the process of transformation of information from one person to another. It is a process of exchanging opinions ideas, feelings, information, views and other fast between or among two or more people. It involves the systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. Communication skill means conveying the message to others and understanding the message from others. Business communication is a bridge of passing information between the management and the employees.

Process of communication

  1. Source or sender: The first step in the communication process is source or sender. The source is also called communicator. Communication begins when someone has some idea, information, view, feeling to transmit. The communicator may be a person, group or an organization. When the communicator intends to communicate to somebody communicator prepares the message.
  2. Encoding: The idea or feeling the sender has to be translated into some language or symbols. This process is called encoding. The sender must choose appropriate words, symbols, pictures etc. to express his/her idea. While selecting the symbols, the sender has to pay attention about the receiver understanding the message.
  3. Message or medium: The medium is simply the pathway for transmission of the message. Some medium must be selected. This channel is chosen by the sender. They can be formal or informal. Examples are face to face , email, letters, fax. Telephone etc.
  4. Decoding to the receiver: The receiver assigns some meaning to the symbol transmitted by the source, so the receiver interprets the message and the process is known as decoding. It is not an easy task because words have different meaning for different people. Problems of communication break down frequently.
  5. Feedback: This is the final phase. Feedback is the reaction of the receiver. The receiver has to confirm whether the message has been received or not. It is only taken in two-way communication.
  6. Noise: IT is interference with the normal flow of information. It disturbs the communication system. No matter how well-designed is the communication system; if noise exists the message received is different from message sent. Example: – noise of machines, vehicles, loud voice etc.


Importance of communication
  1. Managerial efficiency: Communication helps in a smooth operation of management. The managerial task can only be performed when the communication system is effective.
  2. Enhance morale and relations: Effective communication emphasizes the employee’s participation in management. It helps to build the employees morale and cordial industrial relations between management and employees.
  3. Effective leadership: Effective leadership depends upon effective communication. Two-way communication helps in effective communication. Managerial leader must handle the subordinates. For ordering qualitative leadership is essential. And that can be obtained from a proper system of communication.
  4. Mutual trust and confidence: Mutual trust and confidence between labor and management are necessary for the effective movement of an organization. When there is effective communication, it helps to reduce misunderstanding and develop mutual trust.
  5. Better decision: The success of an organization can be measured in a better decision. When the information, data and other fact are not effectively communicated, it hampers the decision making. So, when the facts are communicated to the concerned department, organization, and person. It is easy to make decisions promptly.
  6. Staffing: When the information is correctly communicated in time, it helps in the function of selection, placement, socialization, promotion, and transfer.
  7. Better managerial concern: All managerial functions such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling etc. can’t be conducted without communication.


Principles of communication
  1. Principle of clarity: In the process of communication, simple and clear language must be used. When the word is not familiar the meaning is not clear.
  2. Principle of attention: For good communication of both parties’ receiver and sender must participate. Without proper attention communication can never be complete. So receiver should give full attention in the process of receiving.
  3. Principle of integrity and sincerity: Messages and information must be integrated to develop sincerity of the employees.
  4. Principle of time: The data and information must be communicated at right time to make it reliable and suitable at the present condition.
  5. Principle of consistency: There must be consistent plans, policies and programs so that there is no difficulty in communicating the information.
  6. Principle of informality: Formal relations must be developed between managers and employees but not in all situations. There should also be informal communication.
  7. Principle of use of informal organization: Informal groups of organization can be made in company, and they can provide important information.
  8. Principle of completeness: Incomplete communication system doesn’t provide the meaning of information ideas and other facts and incomplete organization and its department. Therefore, the message which is to be communicated must be adequate and complete.
  9. Principle of feedback: Planning and policies are communicated from top to bottom and suggestions and complaints from bottom to top. This type of communication is called two way communications and there is feedback in two-way communication. By feedback, the sender know reaction of the receiver and have a chance of correct the action.
  10. Principle of objectives: There are two persons involved in communication i.e. sender and receiver. Both sender and receiver must know about the objectives or purpose of communication. The objective may be to obtain information, to give information and initiate then action and so on.
  11. Principle of correctness: Actual information must be provided to the receiver.


Types of communication
  1. Horizontal communication: – It is the process of lateral flow of information in order to coordinate work activities at the same level of management hierarchy. It helps in coordination of task, share information and minimize the conflict. In other words, it is the flow of information between the activities and to solve the organization problems, this can be shown by following figure.

  2. Vertical communication: It is the process of upward and downward flow of information in order to coordinate work activities at the different level of management hierarchy. It helps in task directives, share information about rules and regulations, responsibility, problem, achievement and suggestions and minimize the conflict between subordinates and superior. There are two types of vertical communication:
    • Downward communication: It is the flow of information from top to bottom through formal lines of authority. Top level management transmits the information to subordinates about objectives, policies, strategies and responsibility.

    • Upward communication: It is the flow of information from bottom to top in an organization. Middle and low level management transmits the information to superior about problems, suggestions.

  3. Diagonal communication: It is the flow information between the superior and subordinates who are neither in the same department nor at the same level. It violates the principle of chain of command and unity of command.




Barriers to effective communication

A. Physical barriers

Internal structure of the organization and layout of office machines and equipment creates physical barriers in communication.

  • Distance: Communication is found obstructed in long distance. Like communication between America and Nepal.
  • Noise: It is from external sources and affects the communication process. Noise negatively affects the accuracy.
  • Physical arrangement: The physical arrangement of organizational sources like men, money, material and machine obstruct the communication process.

B. Semantic barriers

The use of difficult and multiple use of languages, words, figures, symbols create semantic barriers.

  • Language: We can find some words having different meaning. As meaning sent by the sender can be quite different from the meaning understood by the receiver. Long and complex sentences creates problem in communication process.
  • Jargons: Technical or unfamiliar language creates barriers to communication that may be drawn from the literature. So message should be simple and condensed as far as possible so that no confusion creation will be there to the receiver.

C. Organizational barriers

It is raised from the organizational goals, regulations, structure and culture.

  • Poor planning: It refers to the designing, encoding, channel selection and conflicting signals in the organization.
  • Structure complexities: Difficult organizational structure barrier for free flow of information. Appropriate communication process must be used.
  • Status differences: It creates barrier for communication. Superior provides information to the subordinate about plans and policies. Different information is provided by different subordinates who create barrier in communication.
  • Organizational distance: Distance between sender and receiver also creates barriers to effective communication.
  • Information overload: If superior provides too much information to the subordinate in short period receiver suffers from information overload which creates barriers to effective communication.
  • Timing: Communication can be obstructed if not done on time. If the information is not provided in time it creates barriers to effective communication.

D. Psychological barriers

It is the barriers to effective communication created from the lack of interest of the people from whom the communication is meant. People do not pay attention to the communication which are not interesting to them and which do not fulfill their want.

  • Perception: It is the process of accepting and interpreting the information by the receiver. People receive things differently for a various number of reasons.
  • Filtering: Communication some time filters the negative information to make it more favorable to the receiver. In this process, knowingly or unknowingly some valuable information may be disposed.
  • Distrust: Superior provides information or message to the subordinates to their own view, ideas and opinion which create obstruction in communication.
  • Emotions: Emotion also creates barriers to effective communication like anger, hate, mistrust, jealousy etc.
  • Viewpoint: It also creates barriers to effective communication. It the receiver doesn’t clear the message and ignore without hearing, the message may create obstructions.
  • Defensiveness: If the receiver receives the message as threat and interprets that message in the same way, it creates barriers to effective communication.

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