It is defined as a harmonization of all resources and activities that facilitates in work. It is the essence of management for the achievement for the achievement of harmony of individual effort towards the accomplishment of group goals. It is a process by which the manager achieves harmonious group effort and unity of command of action for the attainment of a common purpose. Without coordination, other function of management can’t be integrated.

“Coordination deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure successful attainment of an objective.” G.R Terry

Means/ techniques of coordination
  1. Well-defined goals: The first means or technique of coordination is well-defined goals. The goals of the organization should be clear and well-defined. Each individual in the organization should understand the overall goals. When the goals are not well-defined the coordination may not effective.
  2. Sound organization structure: Coordination is the essence of management. It is not possible without sound organization structure. The authority and responsibility for each and every position and employees should be clearly defined.
  3. Effective communication: Coordination helps in creating proper understanding among persons. Without effective communication, coordination may be effective. The ideas, opinions should be interchanged freely. It is only through effective communication that even individual understand his/her limitations, positions and responsibility in the organization. Effective communication helps in coordination. Therefore, it is also an important means of coordination.
  4. Proper leadership: Proper leadership leads the subordinates effectively and efficiently. A good managerial leader uses the motivational tools to coordinate the employees with effective communication system. In short, coordination is made possible through proper leadership.
  5. Proper supervision: Supervisors coordinate the subordinates and their activities. Top level management cannot coordinate all employees. In short, proper supervision helps in effective coordination.
  6. Better plans and policies: Coordination is made according to plans and policies of the organization and departments. When the plans and policies are not better coordination is not effective in the organization.
  7. Cooperation: Without cooperation, coordination may not succeed because coordination is related to employees and their activities. When they are not cooperative, coordination may not be made. So, cooperation is essential in the organization.
  8. Meeting and conference: Coordination may be possible when all employees their all activities and departmental goals are involved in organizational planning and policies. Their all problems and matters may be involved. When there is environment  of constructive discussion and debate with meeting and conference.
  9. Group decision: The group decision is a decision in which all members of the organization are participated to make decisions. The ideas and feelings are mixed into the decision and coordination may succeed.

Importance of coordination
  1. Unity of action: An enterprise has diverse resources; technique, activities etc., and they all must be coordinates to bring unity through unity in action.
  2. Increase in efficiency and economy: Coordination brings efficiency because it is an effort of all organizational members. It also helps to maintain good relation among all levels of management.
  3. Development of personnel: Coordination helps to obtain information about job, qualities of a job holder which helps to analyze about the potentialities of the job holder and improve coordination system.
  4. Differential perception: Different people have different perception. When all people are coordinated effectively their effort and power are concentrated to achieve organizational goals.
  5. Survival of the organization: Coordination helps o harmonize the work resources and physical facilities. When their activities are not harmonized the organization can’t achieve the goal and it can’t survive in the society.
  6. Accomplishment of objectives: When the employees , their task and available resources are coordinated, their production will be increased and it helps to accomplish the objectives of the organization.
  7. Basis of managerial function: All managerial functions such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling etc. can’t be conducted effectively without communication.
  8. Specialization: In the absence of coordination in the organization the activities can’t be moved in specialized areas. Therefore, it helps in specialization.

Requisites of good coordination
  1. Simplified organization: Authority, responsibility, duty and other job description should clearly be described by the organization. Coordination may be simple and easy when all duties and power are clearly simplified.
  2. Harmonized programs and policies: An organization must set the programs and policies. These programs and policies must be harmonized. Harmonized policies helps to make coordination effective.
  3. Well-designed system of communication: Without effective communication coordination and harmonizing activities is not possible. Therefore, communication system must be well-designed.
  4. Voluntary cooperation: When all members of the organization are voluntarily cooperated, then only coordination can be successful.
  5. Coordination through supervision: Supervisors are the most important actor to coordinate the workers and their work. Mainly in all organization supervisors coordinate the resources and activities.
  6. Continuity: It is never ending process. When it is done continuously, the resources are not used effectively, and they cannot provide the contribution.
  7. Direct contact: Direct contact is necessary in effective coordination. Face to face contact may provide more effectiveness.
  8. Clearly defined goals: Organizational goals and other departmental goals must be clearly defined otherwise it isn’t easy to coordinate the resources and activities.
  9. Effective leadership: Leadership must be effective. It helps o increase the confidence of employees and it develops the morale of workers. In fact, effective leadership helps in effective coordination.

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